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Five postulates

  1. Order, regularity, and non-randomness are preferable to lack of order or to irregularity = chaos and to randomness
  2. Orderliness in the empirical world makes the world good, interesting and attractive to the systems theorist
  3. There is order in the orderliness of the external or empirical world (order to the second degree) - a law about laws
  4. The establishment of order, quantification and mathematization are highly valuable aids
  5. The search for order and law necessarily involves the quest for those realities that embody these abstract laws and order - their empirical referents.

The ten hallmarks

  1. In all systems there exists interrelationship and interdependence of objects and their attributes
  2. All systems have a gestalt - a wholeness - that cannot be found through breaking up the system into parts
  3. All systems are goal seeking
  4. All systems are open systems, dependent on inflow to produce its goal, its outflow
  5. All systems exist to transform inputs to outputs
  6. All systems have a degree of structural order or disorder - called entropy
  7. All systems need to be managed in order to reach their goals
  8. There exists natural hierarchies within systems
  9. In complex systems specialized units perform specialized functions
  10. Open systems can reach their goals in many different ways - equifinality

The hallmarks make a good and simple checklist and facilitates the understanding of the overall picture of a security organisation; security is a part of management, its goal is to make the system survive, it needs planning and a structure that mirrors that of the organisation.

Remember this course is

  • A "thinking course" - philosophy/theory of control
  • Applying system theories to ICT-secirty releated problems/issues
  • Because these issues have many dimensions - technical as well as organisational, legal and economical (at least!) they need an inter/multi/cross-disciplinary approach - holistic

Add Churchmans considerations

  • Real goals and stated goals, selected measrures will reveal which are the right ones
  • Environment is outside, defines in parts how the system can operate
  • Resources, include opportunities
  • Components, tasks and missions to be performed inisde the system
  • Management, planning & control in short and long run

Analogies vs Isomorphies

  • Isomorphic systems
  • Iso = same, Morf = form, isomorphic = of same form
  • Isomorfic system : 1:1
  • Thus total correspondance of elements between all elements of some systems
  • Examples: parts of mechanics and electronics
  • Mechanics: Velocity (v=s/t)

Example incorporating re-action to unknown events

  • (Pro-active vs re-active approaches within security)
  • Add an "intelligence compontent" to the simple control system (1)
  • Include more than one level of control (2)

Example 1: The organisation

Fil: F2-3 föreläsningsbilder ht12.ppt sida 37

Example 2: Living systems

  • Living systems typically uses mor than one level of control
  • They do not have "a security ssystem", but are built with survivability in mind
  • The goal is to survive within the identity of the system
  • Organisations may also strucutre their security system for survivability

GLST - General Living Systems Theory

Miller: My analysis of living systems uses concepts of thermodynamics, information theory, cybernetics and systems engineering as well as the classical concepts appropriate for each level

The purpose is to produce a description of living structures and processes in terms of input and output, flows through systems, steady states and feedbacks, which will clarify and unify the facts of life

The model

19 critical subsystems: concrete, open, homeostasis aiming, complex, self regulating, aims & goals, live in a specific environment

3 types of subsystems, those which:

  • Process matter & energy
  • Process information
  • Process matter and energy and information
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